Editing & Usage Guide

The Marriott School editing and usage guide is used for print and web publications such as Marriott Alumni Magazine, department newsletters and blogs, and the school website. It is also provided as a resource for the media.

This guide aims to cover exceptions and items not sufficiently covered in other guides. For items not outlined here, consult the latest edition of the Chicago Manual of Style or Merriam-Webster Dictionary. For news releases, consult the Associated Press Stylebook. Other helpful guides include the BYU Style Guide and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Name Style Guide.


Updated August 2015

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Marriott School of Management

In first references, use Marriott School of Management. In secondary references, use the Marriott School or simply the school. Marriott Alumni Magazine may use Marriott School on first reference. The acronym MSM is not appropriate.

Capitalization Do not capitalize the definite article the before Marriott School or school. When used as a secondary reference without Marriott or Brigham Youngschool (or the school) and university (or the university) should not be capitalized.

Jones graduated in 1998 with a master of accountancy degree from the Marriott School. He was one of the school’s top students.

Descriptions The Marriott School should be referred to as a business school. However, references to the school of management or management school are permitted, particularly when referring to the master of public administration program. 

According to Bloomberg Businessweek, the Marriott School is one of the nation’s leading business schools.
The Marriott School at Brigham Young University is a leading management school with a nationally recognized graduate program in public administration.

History The Marriott School was named after benefactors J. Willard and Alice S. Marriott in 1988. Degrees earned at BYU before 1988 are from BYU and not the Marriott School. 

Johnson earned his BS in accounting from BYU in 1986 and his MBA from the Marriott School in 1990.

Titles Official letterhead, envelopes, etc. should read Marriott School, Brigham Young University. If the title appears on separate lines of text, the words Marriott School should appear on the first line, with Brigham Young University on the line below.


A

academic degrees and honors

Abbreviations The following list includes frequently used abbreviations for academic degrees and professional and honorary designations (Chicago 10.20).

BA, bachelor of arts
BFA, bachelor of fine arts
BS, bachelor of science
EMBA, executive master of business administration
EMPA, executive master of public administration
MA, master of arts
MAcc, master of accountancy
MBA, master of business administration
MD, medicinae doctor (doctor of medicine)
MFA, master of fine arts
MISM, master of information systems management
MPA, master of public administration
MS, master of science
PhD, philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy)

When following a personal name, academic degrees should be offset by commas. (Chicago 10:20)

Joseph Hershall, MD, presented the award.

Capitalization When academic degrees are referred to in general they are not capitalized (Chicago 8.28).

She earned her bachelor’s degree from the Marriott School in 2001.

Lowercase and italicize honors such as cum laudemagna cum laude, and summa cum laude.

She graduated summa cum laude in 2009.

Possessive Do not use the possessive unless directly modifying degree

bachelor’s degree
master’s degree in accounting
master of accountancy
bachelor of arts
BS in finance
associate degree

Punctuation Omit the periods on all degree abbreviations (Chicago 10.20). 

He earned his MBA in finance at Brigham Young University.

Usage Do not use the name of a degree to refer to a person (so, instead of MBA, use MBA student, etc.).

Most first-year MBA students participated in the event.

 See also degrees at the Marriott School.

accounting, accountancy

The term accountancy should be used when referring to the school or the degree. In all other situations, use accounting. 

He earned a master of accountancy degree last year.
They work for the BYU School of Accountancy.
She is an accounting major.
She is majoring in accounting.
He is an accounting professor.
She teaches accounting at the Marriott School.
Accounting professor Bob Smith gave the honorary lecture.
They work for the BYU School of Accountancy.
He earned a master’s degree in accounting last year
.

See also departments.

Air Force ROTC

In first references, use BYU Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps or Air Force ROTC. In secondary references, AFROTC may be used. 

Note: AFROTC cadets train throughout college to prepare for commissions as second lieutenants upon graduation. BYU’s AFROTC is administered through the Marriott School Department of Aerospace Studies, which offers a minor (but not a major) in aerospace studies.

alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus, alum

Alumna is a female singular noun. Alumnae is a plural noun for female graduates. Alumni is a plural noun. Alumnus is a male singular noun. The shortened singular alum may be used to refer to a graduate of either gender.

She is a BYU alumna.
BYU alumni are the best.
He is a BYU alumnus.
Sally Smith, a BYU alum, says she learned a lot.

a.m., p.m. 

Lowercase and use periods (Chicago 9.38). Avoid the redundant 10 a.m. in the morning or 12 noon (noon or midnight alone are sufficient).

Devotional will be held at 11:05 a.m.
Come at 4 p.m. for free food!

See also time.

advisor

Not adviser.

Army ROTC 

In first references, use BYU Army Reserve Officer Training Corps or Army ROTC. In secondary references, ROTC may be used. 

Note: ROTC cadets train throughout college to prepare for commissions as second lieutenants upon graduation. BYU’s ROTC is administered through the Marriott School’s Department of Military Science, which offers a minor (but not a major) in military science. 

awards

Names of awards, scholarships, and prizes are capitalized, but some generic terms used with the names are not (Chicago 8.82).

Nobel Prize
Nobel Laureate
Pulitzer Prize
Rhodes Scholarship
Rhodes scholar

BYU awards:
Excellence in Teaching Award
Alumni Service to Family Award
Distinguished Service Award
Honorary Alumni Award
Karl G. Maeser Excellence in Teaching Award


B

Big Four

Big Four refers to the four largest accounting and professional services firms: EY, KPMG, PwC, and Deloitte.

EY and other Big Four accounting firms felt that selling off their consulting branches was in their best interest. 

Bloomberg Businessweek

Do not italicize Bloomberg except when part of the title of Bloomberg Businessweek magazine. Before 2010 the publication was known as BusinessWeek.

bold

Names of Marriott School students, faculty, staff, and alumni in Marriott Alumni Magazine’s news section and in select other Marriott School publications are bolded. Bold punctuation that immediately follows a bolded name.

The winner was Tyler Stevens.
Lee Perry, Marriott School dean, gave the opening address.

b-school

A generic term used to refer to business school. Do not use in place of Marriott School of Management.

Bloomberg Businessweek released their rankings of the top twenty-five b-schools.

building

Do not capitalize building or other words such as avenue, boulevard, bridge, church, fountain, hotel, park, room, square, street, or theater unless as part of an official or formal name. Avoid the abbreviation bldg. Do not capitalize the final word in Tanner Building addition.

The N. Eldon Tanner Building, completed in early 1983, is the first Brigham Young University academic building to be financed completely by contributions. The building was renovated in 2008.
The information session was held in room 208 of the Tanner Building. The room was full of people.

business school

See Marriott School of Management.

BYU–Idaho

Use an en dash. Ricks College was officially renamed BYU–Idaho in 2001. Degrees prior to this date should be listed as Ricks College; after, BYU–Idaho. 

BYU–Hawaii

Use an en dash.


C

centers

Capitalize center in official titles but not in secondary references (Chicago 8.67). The preferred primary and secondary references for each Marriott School center is listed below. Make sure to maintain consistency in primary and secondary references within the same publication. 

Ballard Center for Economic Self-Reliance Always hyphenate Self-Reliance when referring to the center and capitalize the R. In first references, Ballard Center for Economic Self-Reliance is preferred but the full name, Melvin J. Ballard Center for Economic Self-Reliance, may also be usedIn secondary references, use the Ballard Center or simply the center. Do not rearrange the name of the center, such as Ballard Economic Self-Reliance Center. 

Rollins Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology In first references, Rollins Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology is preferred but the full name, Kevin and Debra Rollins Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology, may also be used (use and, not &). In secondary references, CET is preferred but Rollins Center is also acceptable. 

Steven and Georgia White Business Career Center In first references, the full name, Steven and Georgia White Business Career Center, is preferred but Marriott School Business Career Center may also be used. In secondary references, use the Business Career Center or simply the career center. Do not use White Business Career Center.

Whitmore Global Management Center In first references, Whitmore Global Management Center is preferred but the full name, Kay and Yvonne Whitmore Global Management Center, may also be used (use and, not &). In secondary references, use the Whitmore Center, GMC, or simply the center.

The Rollins Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology (CET) will be sponsoring the event. The CET has sponsored five events this year.
Many students visit the center for help with finding a cofounder.

century

Centuries are spelled out and lowercased (Chicago 9.33). 

Sustainability is a hot topic for twenty-first-century businesses. 
The twentieth century seems so long ago.

chapter

See Management Society.

chief officers

When referring to the chief officers of an organization in headlines, titles, and text, spell out first references to all titles except CEO and CFO. After the first reference, the acronyms of other titles may also be used. Include the abbreviations after spelled-out titles that are repeated later in the text.

Appointed in 1980 by the CEO and president of his company, Johnson was the most senior chief information officer at the conference.
Johnson appointed fellow BYU alum Bobby Smith as chief technology officer (CTO). As CTO, Smith oversees the company’s technological challenges and opportunities.

church

The official name of the church that sponsors Brigham Young University is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Capitalization Lowercase church when used as a modifier, as in church leaders or church activities. When used with LDS, however, capitalize as LDS Church leaders, etc.

Church terminology The following list includes commonly used church-specific terms and their proper spelling and capitalization.

112th Annual General Conference
145th Semiannual General Conference 
April 2010 general conference
April general conference
churchwide
Cub Scout leader
deacons quorum president
elders quorum president
family home evening
General Authority
general conference
high councilor
high priests group leader
nonmember
non-Mormon
Scouting program
Scoutmaster
stake president
Young Men president (not Young Men’s president)

History The name of the church was given by revelation from God to Joseph Smith in 1838. While the term Mormon Church has long been publicly applied to the church as a nickname, it is not an authorized title, and the church discourages its use. 

Usage In first references, the full name of the church is preferred. In Marriott Alumni Magazine, however, LDS Church in first references is acceptable. On second reference use church.

When referring to church members, Latter-day Saints is preferred, though Mormons is acceptable. Mormon is correctly used in proper names, such as the Book of Mormon or Mormon Tabernacle Choir, or when used as an adjective in such expressions as Mormon pioneers. The term Mormonism is acceptable in describing the combination of doctrine, culture, and lifestyle unique to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

When referring to people or organizations that practice polygamy, the terms MormonsMormon fundamentalistMormon dissidents, etc. are incorrect. The AP Stylebook notes: “The term Mormon is not properly applied to the other . . . churches that resulted from the split after [Joseph] Smith’s death” (AP Stylebook, “Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The”).

CIBER

The acronym stands for Centers for International Business Education and Research. Since 2002 the Marriott School’s Whitmore Global Management Center has been designated by the US Department of Education as a CIBER. Spell out and explain CIBER on first reference.

As a Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER), the Whitmore Global Management Center works toward internationalizing the Marriott School.
The Whitmore Center, which is part of the CIBER network of schools, sponsors many programs with an international focus.

class titles

Lowercase class titles when followed by class. Capitalize a class title when it stands alone, is followed by a numeral, or includes a proper noun.

I am really struggling with my introduction to accounting class.
I am really struggling with Introduction to Accounting.
The internet marketing class is very popular.
Internet Marketing 101 is a very popular class.
I am taking a Shakespeare and an English class this semester.

co- prefix

Close up all words with co prefix and do not hyphenate unless it would create a misreading.

cofounder
cohost
cochair
coworker

.com

It is generally unnecessary to include the .com suffix for web-based companies like Amazon and eBay. However, .com should be included when referring to a specific domain name or if it is part of a company’s official name.

Amazon has quickly become the world’s most influential online retailer. Its new website, amazon.com/giftcards, is making news.
Hotels.com offers travelers deals on lodging.  

See also URLs.

comma in a series

When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series of three or more, a comma should appear before the conjunction (Chicago 6.18). 

Students came from Japan, China, and Korea.

conference

The term should be capitalized only if it is part of an official title. 

The eighth annual Management Conference was a success. The conference had more participants than ever before.

course titles

Course titles are spelled out, capitalized, and set off with commas in news and feature stories. In other instances, such as website text, use the following abbreviations:

ACC Accounting
BUS M Business Management
EMBA Executive Master of Business Administration
IS Information Systems
MBA Master of Business Administration
ORG B Organizational Behavior
P MGT Public Management
RECM Recreation Management

The course I took first was Philosophy 105, Reasoning and Writing.
My first Marriott School course was Accounting 200, Principles of Accounting.
Register for RECM 301.

credit hours

In running text, spell out the number of credit hours. In a list or text dense with numbers, numerals are appropriate.

RECM 301 was three credit hours.
It is a three-credit-hour course.


D

dashes

There are several different kinds of dashes that differ in length and use. 

Em dash (—) Use the em dash to denote a sudden break in thought that causes an abrupt change in sentence structure (Chicago 2.13).

The anticipated result of this effort—and it is already proving to be correct—is that local students who take these courses will be in a stronger position to find meaningful employment.

Use the em dash to give emphasis or explanation (6.83).

MTC missionaries consume 167,000 gallons of milk—the entire production of a three-hundred-cow dairy.

En dash (–) Use the en dash to connect continuing, or inclusive, date, time, or reference numbers unless the words from or between precede the first element in the pair (Chicago 6.78).

1968–72
pp. 38–45
10 a.m.–5 p.m.
John 4:3–6:2
May–June 1967
13 May 1965–9 June 1966
from 1968 to 1972 (never from 1968–1972)
from May to June 1967 (never from May–June 1967)
between 1968 and 1970 (never between 1968–70)
between 10 a.m. and 5 p.m.

The en dash is also used in place of a hyphen in a compound adjective when one of its elements is an open compound or when two or more of its elements are open or hyphenated compounds (Chicago 6.80).

the post–World War II years
a hospital–nursing home connection

Hyphen (-) Use the hyphen to separate numbers that are not inclusive, such as telephone numbers and social security numbers (Chicago 6.77).

He can be reached at (801) 422-7696.

Use the hyphen for compound words and in word division. Refer to Merriam-Webster Dictionary to check which words require hyphenation (Chicago 7.77­–7.79, 7.43, 7.85).

He was once a three-term governor.
We must look ahead as we move into the twenty-first century.

Place a hyphen between the following compound adjectives and the nouns they modify:

all- (all-inclusive study; study that is all inclusive)
full- (full-length mirror; the mirror is full length)
upper-, lower-, mid-, etc. (some exceptions: highland, midlife, lowbrow)
quasi- (adjectives only: quasi-legislative or quasi-judicial)
self- (but not self plus a suffix: self-supported vs. selfless)
-century (adjectives only: fifth-century but the fifth century)

When a prefix stands alone, add a hyphen (Chicago 7.85).

The atrium is both over- and underused by the students.

data

Although data has traditionally been categorized as a plural noun, it is acceptable to use a singular verb with data.

The data is conclusive.

dates

The preferred style is day-month-year with no internal punctuation (Chicago 6.45). 

The conference will begin on 28 August 1999.
Students participated from 27 April to 5 June.

When a date is identified by month and year, no internal punctuation is necessary or appropriate.

The next alumni board meeting will be in March 2002.

When a day is mentioned without a month or year, the number is usually spelled out.

By the twenty-fifth, everyone had left town.
The tenth will always be important, even as it stands in the shadow cast by the eleventh.

degrees at the Marriott School

Some degrees offered at the Marriott School include an emphasis or area of study. Mention a student’s area of study when it is relevant to the story or context. The following list outlines current graduate and undergraduate degrees at the Marriott School, including offered emphases. Students intending to apply to the Marriott School are said to be premanagement majors. When mentioning alumni who graduated in past programs not listed below, refer to the major or program listed in the alumni database.

Graduate degrees
Master of accountancy The abbreviation MAcc is preferred. Always prefix MAcc with a, not an (Chicago 10.9). The program offers emphases in tax and professional accountancy. Students admitted to the MAcc program will receive both a BS in accountancy and a MAcc upon graduation. 

Master of business administration The abbreviation MBA is preferred. Always prefix MBA with an (Chicago 10.9). The MBA program offers specializations in entrepreneurship, finance, global supply chain, marketing, and OBHR, with minors in entrepreneurship, information systems, international business, social innovation, and strategy.

Executive MBA Use Executive MBA in first references. Use EMBA in secondary references.

Master of information systems management The abbreviation MISM is preferred. Always prefix MISM with an (Chicago 10.9). The program offers emphases in business intelligence, security and forensics, software development, and PhD preparation.

Master of public administration The abbreviation MPA is preferred. Always prefix MPA with an (Chicago 10.9). The program offers emphases in local government management, financial and management analysis, federal government, and nonprofit management.

Executive MPA Use Executive MPA in first references. Use EMPA in secondary references.

Master of science in youth and family recreation The abbreviation MS YFR is preferred. On first reference, MS in youth and family recreation is acceptable.

Undergraduate degrees
BS in accountancy While the name of the degree uses the term accountancy, a student is said to be majoring in accounting.

See also accountancy, accounting.

BS in finance The finance major offers specializations in asset management, corporate finance, investment banking, and real estate investing.

BS in information systems If an abbreviated term is needed, use IS. Do not use ISYS. 

BS in management The management major offers emphases in entrepreneurship, global supply chain, marketing, OBHR, and strategy.

BS in recreation management The program offers emphases in experience industry management and therapeutic recreation.  

See also academic degrees and honors, majors, and minors.

Deans Office

Not Dean’s or Deans’ Office.

decades

Decades should be spelled out (as long as the century is clear) and lowercased (Chicago 9.34). If numerals are used, do not include an apostrophe between the numerals and s.

I lived through the nineties.
We studied the 1920s and 1930s last semester. 

departments

When preceded by BYU or Marriott School, capitalize the full name of the department. Lowercase department and the department name in all other references (Chicago 8.62). Departments at the Marriott School refer to the internal organization of faculty research and teaching areas, not to student majors or programs. The school’s official department names are listed below.

Department of Aerospace Studies

Department of Finance

Department of Information Systems If an abbreviated term is needed, particularly in headlines, use IS. Do not use ISYS. 

Department of Marketing and Global Supply Chain

Department of Military Science

Department of Organizational Leadership and Strategy Avoid the abbreviation OLS

Romney Institute of Public Management In first references, Romney Institute of Public Management is preferred but the full name, George W. Romney Institute of Public Management, may also be used. In secondary references, use the Romney Institute or simply the institute

Department of Recreation Management The department transferred to the Marriott School from the College of Health and Human Performance in August 2009. 

School of Accountancy Always capitalize. Do not use School of Accounting. Avoid the awkward juxtaposition of the Marriott School School of Accountancy; if necessary, use BYU School of Accountancy.

The Marriott School Department of Finance will be moving its office next door. The finance department has several new faculty members this year. The department’s newest faculty member is Bob Smith. “We are excited to have him,” says finance department chair Steve Thorley.

See also degrees at the Marriott School.

different from, different than

In general, the preferred usage is different from. However, different than is preferred when a clause follows than and in elliptical constructions.

She is not afraid to be different from everyone else.
My idea of a good grade is different from his.
Things are different than they used to be.
This semester was no different than last semester had been.
He drives a different make than [the car that] I drive.

double spacing

Place only one space after periods and all other punctuation marks. 


E

e-business

Use a lowercase e and b and a hyphen, except when beginning a sentence (E-business) or in a headline (E-Business). Follow the same rule with similar words, such as e-commerce and e-book.

email

Use a lowercase e and no hyphen. 

The Alumni Association is preparing to launch a lifetime, web-based email system that could be used by all BYU graduates.

For email addresses, lowercase everything. Avoid underlining emails since underscores can be difficult to distinguish.

My email is style_guide@byu.edu.

ExxonMobil

Do not hyphenate; no e at the end.


F

faculty

is used as a plural noun meaning “the teaching and administrative staff in an educational institution.” 

Most of the faculty prefer to use hardback books rather than online texts.
The faculty collaborate in their teaching to highlight key concepts that bridge multiple disciplines and streamline the learning process.

Fortune 500

Use a capital F and the number 500.

General Electric, a Fortune 500 company, announced plans to merge with Honeywell.

Founders Launchpad

Not Founder’s OR Founders’.

fundraising, fundraiser, fundraise

Do not hyphenate.


H

headlines 

Use the headline style of capitalization (rather than sentence style) for headlines (Chicago 8.157). Use the following rules as a guide:

1. Always capitalize the first and last word.
2. Lowercase the articles thea, and an.
3. Lowercase prepositions, regardless of length, except when they are stressed (A River Runs Through It), are used adverbially or adjectivally (Look Up, Turn Down, The On Button), or are used as conjunctions (Look Before You Leap).
4. Lowercase the conjunctions andbutforor, and nor.
5. Lowercase to and as in any grammatical function.

For guidelines on how to capitalize hyphenated compounds, refer to Chicago 8.159.

healthcare

Do not hyphenate.

hyperlinks

On websites and emails, hyperlink words without their surrounding punctuation.

The article, “Back to the City,” is cited by many authors.


I

international cities

No country name is needed when the following cities are mentioned (AP Stylebook, “datelines”).

Amsterdam
Baghdad
Bangkok
Beijing
Beirut
Berlin
Brussels
Cairo
Djibouti
Dublin
Geneva
Gibraltar
Guatemala City
Havana
Helsinki
Hong Kong
Islamabad
Istanbul
Jerusalem
Johannesburg
Kuwait City
London
Luxembourg
Macau
Madrid
Mexico City
Milan
Monaco
Montreal
Moscow
Munich
New Delhi
Panama City
Paris
Prague
Quebec City
Rio de Janeiro
Rome
San Marino
Sao Paulo
Shanghai
Singapore
Stockholm
Sydney
Tokyo
Toronto
Vatican City
Vienna
Zurich

internet

Lowercase.

italics

Italicize complete works, such as the titles of books, magazines, movies, newspapers, and plays. Italics are also used to set apart foreign words, words that refer to themselves (ain’t isn’t a word), or exclamations. To emphasize a word or phrase, use italics rather than all caps. Do not italicize punctuation that does not belong to the title or exclamation—it should instead match the surrounding text (Chicago 6.2).

Businessweek‘s rankings were fair.
Many editors admire 
Wired Style: it is both elegant and easy to use.
One of my favorite words is 
peppy; it always makes me smile.
Are you saying the wound was 
self-inflicted?
The professors authored 
Boom Start: Super Laws of Successful Entrepreneurs.

 See also magazine


J

JPEG, GIF, PDF

Always capitalize these file name acronyms unless using them as file extensions. 

Please submit photos as JPEG or GIF files and send text in PDF format. 
The photo I have attached, vacation.gif, is in color.

Jr., Sr.

Do not set these off with commas (Chicago 10.19).

junior core

Students in several undergraduate Marriott School majors are required to complete a junior core, consisting of major-area classes taken with the same group of students. Lowercase the term “junior core.” Programs that feature a junior core include accounting, finance, information systems, recreation management, and management (global supply chain, marketing, and entrepreneurship emphases).

The accounting program’s junior core intimidates many a student. 
Jordan Johnson met his cofounder in the IS junior core.


L

login

Use login (and similar words like logon and logoff) as a closed compound when used as a noun, but use log in when used as a verb (AP Stylebook, “login”).

The login box is in the upper right corner of the screen. Go to the Alumni Association website to log in and register today.


M

magazine

For some magazines, it may be necessary to add magazine to the first reference of the title to ensure clarity. Do not capitalize or italicize magazine unless it is part of the official title.

Entrepreneur magazine recently ranked the Marriott School twelfth in the nation in its annual undergraduate program review.

See also italics.

majors

Always lowercase majors unless they are proper nouns, such as languages.

Bob Smith is a senior majoring in business management.
Bob Smith is a senior majoring in business management with an emphasis in global supply chain.
Bob Smith majored in English before earning his MBA.

See also degrees at the Marriott School, minors.

Management Society

Use BYU Management Society in first references. Use the Management Society or simply the society in secondary references. Capitalize Chapter when referring to a specific chapter but lowercase when used in general references. For official names of chapters, refer to the most recent annual report published in the summer issue of Marriott Alumni Magazine.

Many alumni and friends of the school have joined the Management Society. The society was established in 1977.
The Colorado Denver Chapter was founded in May. The chapter already has fifty members.

Marriott Alumni Magazine

The Marriott School’s alumni magazine was named Exchange until June 2001 when it was renamed Marriott Alumni Magazine. Quotations from and references to these publications should reflect this change.

Exchange reported the happenings of the business school professionally for more than two decades. Marriott Alumni Magazine continues this great tradition.

media, medium

When medium refers to any physical material used to store data, such as DVD, disk, tape, or paper, the plural noun is media, which takes a plural verb. When medium refers to those who claim to commune with the dead, the plural noun is mediums.

The best medium for this project is the internet.
The media used for this project are very fitting.

The term media (or mass media), when it is used to refer to the collective group of newspapers, magazines, radio, television, motion pictures, and the internet, has a singular connotation and may take a singular verb.

Today’s media is quickly becoming overwhelming.

microenterprise

Always use as one word and lowercase the e. The term microenterprise is preferred over microfinance. If microfinance is part of an official title then it is should remain so.

minors

Always lowercase minors unless they are proper nouns, such as languages. Minors are rarely mentioned unless they directly pertain to an article. Minors offered at the Marriott School include:

global business and literacy
management
nonprofit
strategy
aerospace studies
military science

See also degrees at the Marriott School, majors

more than

Use more than when referring to amounts and over when referring to spatial relationships.

We traveled over the river and through the woods.
The company earned more than $2 billion last year.


N

No.

For rankings use No. and the numeral.

The BYU MBA program was ranked No. 4 overall and No. 2 for placement in the west.

non

Words preceded by non typically don’t use hyphens unless the following word is a proper noun. Refer to Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

nonprofit
noncommittal
non-American

numbers

Refer to Chicago 9 for detailed guidelines.

Cardinal Numbers Spell out the following: 

—Whole numbers from one through one hundred (Chicago 9.2).

There are forty-three students in the MPA Class of 1999.
The three new parking lots will provide space for 540 more cars.
This will still be standing one hundred years from now. 

—Any whole numbers followed by hundred, thousand, hundred thousand, million, and so on (Chicago 9.4).

The lecture hall can seat up to four hundred students.

—Any number that begins a sentence (Chicago 9.5). Often a sentence may need to be recast to avoid awkwardness.

Two hundred and forty-three students attended the training seminar.
One hundred ten men and 103 women will receive advanced degrees this quarter.

Note that specific numbers like twenty-onethirty-nineforty-seven, and so on are hyphenated, whether used alone or as part of a larger number.

At age twenty-six he was the youngest CEO to ever head the company.
Nineteen eighty-three was the year the Tanner Building was dedicated.

When spelled-out numbers would cluster thickly in a sentence or paragraph, it may be better to use numerals. (Chicago 9.7)

The ages of the eight members of the city council are 69, 64, 58, 54 (two members), 47, 45, and 35.

Use numerals with thousand, million, and billion when referring to specific quantities (Chicago 9.8)

Total membership should rise to 11.2 million by the end of this year as we usher in the new millennium and should reach at least 18 million by 2020. 
In Utah, 25 thousand people prefer chocolate to strawberry ice cream.

Military Units Spell out numerals of one hundred or less designating military subdivisions (Chicago 9.48). When numerals are used do not use a superscript for st, th, etc.

Seventy-Seventh Regiment 
101st Airborne Division 
323rd Fighter Wing 
Third Battalion, 134th Artillery 
Twelfth Armored Division

Money Spell out whole numbers one through one hundred. If the number is spelled out, so is the unit of currency, and if numerals are used, $ or ¢ is used (Chicago 9.21).

The fare has been raised to twenty-five cents.
The committee raised a total of $325.
Hundreds of collectors paid five dollars each to attend the annual event.

Ordinal Numbers The rules for cardinal numbers apply to ordinal numbers (Chicago 9.6). 

The students placed second, third, and fourth in a Java programming contest during the conference.
The Marriott School was ranked twenty-fifth.
You are the 255th student to ask me that question.
She was the thousandth customer and won the prize.

Percentages Spell out the word percent in text. It is acceptable to use the symbol % if numerous percentages are being listed in tables or graphs (Chicago 9.18).

The activity level increased by 4.5 percent in one year. 
Reactivation increased 17% in Chile, 14% in Bolivia, 18% in Brazil, and 16% in Argentina.

Plurals The plurals of spelled-out numbers are formed like the plurals of other nouns. The plurals of numerals are formed by adding s. (Chicago 9.54).

The students were in their twenties and thirties.
Among the scores were two 240s and three 238s.
The 1980s and 1990s have seen great technological developments.


O

OBHR

Preferred acronym for organizational behavior and human resources. Do not use a slash (/) between OB and HR. It is usually not necessary to spell out the acronym.

office

Do not capitalize unless part of an official title (Chicago 8.62; AP Stylebook, “office”). 

MBA office
Marriott School Undergraduate Programs office
external relations office
the Office of Management and Budget

See also Deans Office.

online

Do not capitalize. Use as one word with no hyphen. 

Candidates can apply online for admission to the MBA program.

over

See more than


P

Peery Institute of Financial Services

In first references Peery Institute of Financial Services is preferred but the full name, H. Taylor Peery Institute of Financial Services, may also be used. Whichever name is used, make sure to maintain consistency within the same publication. In secondary references, use the Peery Institute or simply the institute.

The Peery Institute of Financial Services was founded and named in 2001.

phone numbers

Include the area code in parentheses.

(801) 422-7696

possessives ending with the letter s 

Add an apostrophe and an s when a singular word or name already ends with s (Chicago 7.15).  

Listen to the bass’s chords.
James Jones’s company is cutting-edge. 
James’s family is nice. 

When a plural word or name is made possessive, add only an apostrophe (with the exception of a few irregular plurals, like children, that do not end in s). 

The puppies’ faces were adored by all.
The Smiths’ house is decorated lavishly.
I love children’s literature.

premanagement

Do not hyphenate

program

Do not capitalize. The only exceptions are Mentor Program and the Peery Social Entrepreneurship Program. 

The school’s MBA program is highly ranked.

See also degrees at the Marriott School.


R

references to people

Use full name in first references. On following references, use the last name only, or use personal pronouns heshe, his, or her. The first name may be used when a story refers to family members with the same last name. Middle initials are only included in Marriott Alumni Magazine at the request of the person being featured.

résumé

Accent marks above both e’s are preferred.

Rollins Center Founders

Capitalize Founders when used with Rollins Center. Lowercase when standing alone. Use full name on first reference. Where necessary, explain that these are not founders of the center but are entrepreneurs who donate resources and time to the Rollins Center.


S 

seasons

Capitalize seasons fall, winter, spring, summer in running text only when using with semester or issue. Instances not involving semester or issue should always be lowercased.

Fall 2014 issue
Winter 2015 semester

startup

Use as one word with no hyphen (AP Stylebook, “startup”).

states and cities

No state is needed when the following cities are mentioned (AP Stylebook, “datelines”).

Atlanta
Baltimore
Boston
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Denver
Detroit
Honolulu
Houston
Indianapolis
Las Vegas
Los Angeles
Miami
Milwaukee
Minneapolis
New Orleans
New York
Oklahoma City
Orem
Philadelphia
Phoenix
Pittsburgh
Provo
St. Louis
Salt Lake City
San Antonio
San Diego
San Francisco
Seattle
Washington


T 

Tanner Building

In first references Tanner Building is appropriate but the full name, N. Eldon Tanner Building, may also be used. In general references, lowercase buildingTNRB may be used when attached with a specific room number. Avoid the abbreviation Tanner Bldg. Lowercase addition in Tanner Building addition.

Please submit your application to 390 TNRB by 5 p.m.
The reception will be held in the Tanner Building this evening.

The Princeton Review

Do not italicize unless part of a publication title; always capitalize The. The Princeton Review is an education services company known for its test-prep courses, education programs, and graduate school guidebooks. The Princeton Review is not affiliated with Princeton University and is not a magazine.

The Marriott School is one of the top twenty-five colleges for students looking to start their own business, according to rankings published by Entrepreneur magazine and The Princeton Review.

time

Times of day should be referred to with numerals. In pieces that use o’clock in the text, numbers are always spelled out. Never use 12 a.m. or 12 p.m. since they can be misinterpreted; use midnight or noon instead (Chicago 9.38).

The directors expected the meeting to continue until 3:30 p.m.
The library closes at midnight on weekdays.

See also a.m., p.m.

titles

Capitalization Civic, military, religious, and professional titles and titles of nobility are capitalized when they immediately precede a personal name and are thus used as part of the name (usually replacing the title holder’s first name). Titles are lowercased when following a name, used as an apposition, or used in place of a name (Chicago 8.18).

Last month Dean Perry announced the change.
Last month the dean announced the change.
Last month the Marriott School dean announced the change.
Last month Marriott School dean Lee Perry announced the change.
Last month Lee Perry, dean of the Marriott School, announced the change.

Terms denoting student status are lowercased (Chicago 8.28).

freshman Bob Smith
Bob Smith, first-year MBA student

Titles are capitalized if they refer to more than one name.

Mayors Cermak and Walker 
Professors Meek and Dyer

Among professional titles, named academic professorships and fellowships are usually capitalized wherever they appear, especially if they are accompanied by a personal name (Chicago 8.27, 8.29).

Mary M. Warren, Alfred R. Wellman Distinguished Service Professor
Arthur M. Trouville, Wellington Kingsley Professor Emeritus
Margaret J. O’Neal, professor emerita

Punctuation Use commas to set off words identifying a title or position following a person’s name.

W. Steve Albrecht, associate dean of the Marriott School, was honored as Accountant of the Year by Beta Alpha Psi, a national professional accounting and business information fraternity.


U

United States

Abbreviate US with no space or periods. Use US as an adjective and United States as a noun.

university

Do not capitalize unless part of BYU’s official title, Brigham Young University. 

Colonel Reid Grawe is commander of the Brigham Young University Army Reserve Officer Training Corps Battalion. He joined the university in June 1999.

URLs

In most cases, do not include http:// or www before a website. These designations are no longer necessary. When used with other contact information—phone, fax, and email—web is preferred. 

External Relations Office
Phone: (801) 422-7696
Fax: (801) 422-0501
Web: marriottschool.byu.edu

Line breaks If a URL has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. Such breaks help to signal that the URL has been carried over to the next line. A hyphen should never be added to denote a line break, nor should a hyphen that is part of a URL appear at the end of a line (Chicago 14.12).

marriottschool
.byu.edu
marriottschool.byu.edu
/styleguide/

Punctuation If a URL ends a sentence, include a period after the URL. Do not set off a URL with angle brackets or quotes. 

Visit us on the web at marriottschool.byu.edu. 

See also .com.

U.S. News & World Report 


V

vice president

Spell out and lowercase in first references. VP may be used in secondary references.

Thomas Jones, vice president, was trained by the company’s president.


W

Walmart

Do not hyphenate.

Washington, DC

Enclose DC in commas; do not use periods or spaces between the initials.

Steven Johnson was invited to Washington, DC, to speak at an entrepreneurship conference.

web

Lowercase.

I like to surf the web in my spare time.

website

Lowercase.

The Marriott School launched its new website in July 2015.